The decision came after an all-night meeting that began Tuesday evening and continued into the early morning hours Wednesday.
The vote was split along party lines with five Democrats voting yes to rezone the land and three Republicans voting no.
Prince William County leaders vote to approve controversial Devlin Technology Park data center project
The Devlin Technology Park project prompted one of the region's biggest land-use disputes in decades.
Proponents say it will create jobs and increase land values in the region.
Residents and others who oppose the plan say they are concerned that the data centers are noisy, ugly, and consume massive amounts of electricity.
They say noise pollution from the air conditioning systems required to cool the massive buildings, and the lengthy construction time required to build them, would be detrimental to the area.